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Pjp prophylaxis CD4

Patients with less than 200 CD4+ T-cells/uL should receive PCP prophylaxis. Patients with constitutional symptoms such as thrush or unexplained fever greater than 100 F for greater than or equal to 2 weeks should also receive prophylaxis, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count. Prophylaxis should be continued for the patient's lifetime. 2 Discontinuation of primary PJP prophylaxis appears to be safe in patients on combination ART with a suppressed HIV viral load and a CD4 count >100 cells/mm(3). Additional data are needed to support the safety of discontinuing secondary PJP prophylaxis. Decisions to discontinue PJP prophylaxis in Objectives: Guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV patients are based on CD4 below 200/mm3. Such cut-off value is suggested to guide prophylaxis in non-HIV conditions (NHIV) especially in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AD). We aimed to determine if CD4 could be used to guide PCP prophylaxis in AD

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Discontinuing Primary Prophylaxis. Primary Pneumocystis prophylaxis should be discontinued in adult and adolescent patients who have responded to ART with an increase in CD4 counts from <200 cells/mm 3 to >200 cells/mm 3 for >3 months (AI) Patients with CD4 count >200, but CD4% 14 were defined as Discordance A (Dis-A) and conversely CD4 count 200 but CD4% > 14 defined as Discordance B (Dis-B). We assessed whether these patients were on any form of PJP prophylaxis, developed PJP, received antiretroviral therapy, or had any hospital admissions for respiratory illnesses other than PJP Discontinuating Primary Prophylaxis. Primary pneumocystis prophylaxis should be discontinued for adult and adolescent patients who have responded to HAART with an increase in CD4 + T lymphocyte counts to >200 cells/µL for >3 months (AI) Pneumocystis Pneumonia: CD4 count increased from <200 to >200 cells/mm 3 for >3 months in response to ART (AI) Can consider when CD4 count is 100-200 cells/mm 3 if HIV RNA remains below limits of detection for ≥3 months-6 months (BII). CD4 count <100 cells/mm 3 (AIII) CD4 count 100-200 cells/mm 3 and HIV RNA above detection limit of the. Table 1. Prophylaxis to Prevent First Episode of Opportunistic Disease. Table 1. Prophylaxis to Prevent First Episode of Opportunistic Disease. HAV-susceptible patients with chronic liver disease, or who are injection-drug users, or MSM ( AII ). Hepatitis A vaccine 1 mL IM x 2 doses at 0 and 6-12 months ( AII )

CD4 + monitoring has been advocated as a method to quantify risk of disease development and to guide duration of prophylaxis in temozolomide and alemtuzumab regimens. 52, 70 However, further studies are required to establish the utility of CD4 + monitoring in the non-HIV patient setting. In patients with ongoing immunosuppression (e.g. graft-vs. Pneumocystis jiroveci is an opportunistic fungus with the ability to cause lethal pneumonia in those with advanced immu-nosuppression.1 Fortunately, this outcome is preventable with prophylaxis. Unfortu-nately, however, deciding who is immuno - suppressed enough to justify prophylaxis can be a confusing subject, particularl Objective: To determine the safety of discontinuing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, in patients on effective antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell counts that have plateaued at < 200 cells/microl. Methods: We prospectively evaluated a cohort of HIV infected patients at a multidisciplinary HIV clinic with sustained HIV RNA levels < 50 copies/ml and CD4+ T-cell counts that.

Secondary PjP prophylaxis may be safely withheld in such patients. While European guidelines recommend discontinuing secondary PjP prophylaxis only if CD4 counts rise above 200 cells/mL, the latest US Guidelines consider secondary prophylaxis discontinuation even in patients with a CD4 count above 100 cells/µL and suppressed viral load CD4 count and percentage discordance was seen in 57 (13%) of 429. Patients with CD4 count >200 but CD4% <14 were significantly less likely to be prescribed PJP prophylaxis compared with those who had CD4 count <200 and CD4% >14 (29% versus 86%; odds ratio = 0.064, 95% confidence interval: 0.0168-0.2436; P < .0001) CD4 cell count were <200/μL in 73.1% of the patients. Conclusion: CD4 cell count <200/μL is a sensitive biomarker to identify non-HIV immunocompromised patients who are at risk for PJP. Measuring CD4 cell counts could help clinicians identify patients who may benefit from TMP-SMX prophylaxis Guidelines currently recommend that PJP prophylaxis should be discontinued in HIV-infected patients who have responded to ART with an increase in CD4 count to greater than 200 cells/mm 3 for greater than 3 months. 1,29-31 It is not clear when to discontinue PJP prophylaxis after starting solely based on a CD4%, but in the studies 29-31.

Recommendations for Prophylaxis Against Pneumocystis

  1. primary Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis.[8] CD4 count increase from less than 200 cells/mm3 to 200 cells/mm3 or greater for at least 3 months in response to antiretroviral therapy (AI). This recommendation is based on multiple studies that have shown very low risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia if primary prophylaxis is discontinue
  2. prophylaxis when CD4>200 for 3 months Primary prophylaxis: For all patients with CD4 count ≤200 or CD4% <14. Treat as per secondary prophylaxis above. Discontinue secondary prophylaxis when CD4 count >200 for >3months. Primaquine is not licensed in the UK but can be prescribed on a named patient basis - contact pharmacist to order
  3. Guidelines for Prophylaxis Against Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia for Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus . Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the most common presenting manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a major and recurring cause of morbidity and mortality for persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  4. Primary Pneumocystis prophylaxis is indicated for patients with an absolute CD4 count of <200 cells/µL, oropharyngeal candidiasis, or any AIDS-defining condition; secondary prophylaxis is indicated after treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Prophylaxis can be discontinued once the CD4 count on ART has been ≥200 cells/µL for 3-6 months
  5. Rationale. Although advances in the management of HIV and AIDS diseases have been made, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) remains an important complication and cause of morbidity. Without PCP prophylaxis, patients with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of developing PCP, especially when CD4 cell counts falls to 200 cells/mm3-250 cells/mm3.
  6. Although advances in the management of HIV and AIDS diseases have been made, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) remains an important complication and cause of morbidity (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017). Without PCP prophylaxis, patients with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of developing PCP, especially when CD4 cell.

Discontinuing Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Prophylaxis

Introduction. It is well established that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/μl are at substantial risk for developing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) .The benefits of PCP prophylaxis are well documented and recommendations are clearly outlined in the 2001 USPHS/IDSA guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections We describe a rare case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in a heterosexual man with a pertinent medical history of well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and PCP prophylaxis with atovaquone. The patient presented with recurrent shortness of breath, worsening malaise, and fever, following treatment for hypersensitivity. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), also known as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is a form of pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.. Pneumocystis specimens are commonly found in the lungs of healthy people although it is usually not a cause for disease. However, they are a source of opportunistic infection and can cause lung infections in people with a. Prophylaxis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is highly successful in preventing PJP in patients with immunosuppression from a diverse range of causes, including solid-organ transplantation and malignancy. r Guidelines have been published for the use of PJP prophylaxis in patients with cancer, including blood and marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. r r In a meta-analysis of randomized trials of PJP.

PJP (previously known as Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia) presents differently, depending on whether the patient is HIV-negative or HIV-positive [HIV (-)PJP versus HIV (+)PJP]. HIV causes PJP pneumonia to present in a more indolent manner, with a higher burden of organisms. This makes HIV (+)PJP somewhat easier to diagnose and to treat Terms in this set (9) Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP or PJP) Prophylaxis. Indication: CD4+ count < 200 cells/mm3 or other AIDs-defining illness. Primary prophylaxis: Bactrim DS or SS daily. Alternative: Dapsone or Dapsone + pyrimethamine + leucovorin or Atovaquone. D/C prophylaxis: CD4+ count > 200 for > 3 months on ART What do they receive? -Patient needs PJP prophylaxis if CD4 count less than 200 OR oropharyngeal candidiasis or other AID-defining illness. -First line treatment is: Bactrim DS or SS daily. -Alternative with sulfa allergy: Dapsone. A patient is taking Bactrim DS QD for PJP prophylaxis

Prophylaxis is recommended for all HIV-infected children aged ≥6 years who have CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell counts <200 cells/mm 3 or CD4 percentage <15%, for children aged 1 to <6 years with CD4 counts <500 cells/mm 3 or CD4 percentage <15%, and for all HIV-infected infants aged <12 months regardless of CD4 count or percentage (AII) Recent studies have prescribed PJP prophylaxis for patients with prolonged grade III/IV neutropenia 23, based on local practice 24 or based on the CD4 count 19.There is increasing evidence that the majority of patients will develop significant reductions in their CD4 counts post Bendamustine Overall, there was a low incidence of PJP among HIV-infected patients who discontinued primary PJP prophylaxis and were well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions: Discontinuation of primary PJP prophylaxis appears to be safe in patients on combination ART with a suppressed HIV viral load and a CD4 count >100 cells/mm 3. Objective: To review the evidence for discontinuing primary and secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3. Data Sources:.

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Guidelines for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis Pneumonia NIH - HIV

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (formerly called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or PCP) is the most common opportunistic respiratory infection in patients with AIDS. It typically occurs in patients with HIV with a CD4 count <200 cells/microL who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy or appropriate prophylaxis Prophylactic Pneumocystis therapy. Primary prophylaxis. Prophylaxis against PJP is recommended in patients with a CD4+ T cell count < 200/μL or CD4+ T cell proportion < 14% of lymphocytes, or oral candidiasis or unexplained fever of more than 2 weeks duration Background HIV viral load (VL) is currently not part of the criteria for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis discontinuation, but suppression of plasma viremia with antiretroviral therapy may allow for discontinuation of PCP prophylaxis even with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Methods A systematic review was performed to determine the incidence of PCP in HIV-infected individuals with.

Pneumocystis pneumonia ( PCP) prophylaxis is used in certain patients, such as allogeneic HCT recipients, selected autologous HCT recipients. ›. Fungal infections following lung transplantation. found between once-daily and thrice-weekly administration schedules for TMP-SMX. Although PCP prophylaxis is highly effective, some cases have. less than 750 for children 12-23 months. less than 500 for children 24 months through 5 years. less than 200 for children 6 years and older. A CD4+ percentage less than 20% is also abnormally low, and if present, should be used as indication for prophylaxis regardless of the absolute count Defect in the T-cell arm of immunity seems to be a key factor in the development of PJP (2), as one can infer given we risk stratify HIV patients based on their CD4 count. CD4 cells function as memory cells that orchestrate the host's inflammatory response by recruiting and activating other arms of the immune system (3,) Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (also known as PCP) can be safely stopped by patients taking HIV therapy whose CD4 cell count is as low as 101 cells/mm3, provided that they have an undetectable viral load, a team of European investigators report in the September 1st edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases. The incidence of PCP was low amongst patients with these characteristics.

Clinicians May Overlook CD4 Percent in HIV+ When Deciding

The US treatment guidelines recommend Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis for all HIV-infected persons with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (ie, eligible for PCP prophylaxis). However, some studies suggest PCP prophylaxis may be unnecessary in virally suppressed patients Procedures/Professional Services (Temporary Codes) G9223 is a valid 2021 HCPCS code for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis prescribed within 3 months of low cd4+ cell count below 500 cells/mm3 or a cd4 percentage below 15% or just Pjp proph ordered cd4 low for short, used in Medical care

Horses and Zebras: Delirium in an HIV patient

The Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infection Guidelines list the following indications for discontinuation of primary Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis. CD4 count increase from less than 200 cells/mm 3 to 200 cells/mm 3 or greater for at least 3 months in response to antiretroviral therapy (AI) a CD4+ cell count <50 cells/μL (5.83%, or incidence rate 16.79/1,000 person-year, 95% CI 13.39-20.19) was significantly higher than patients in the CTX group with a CD4+ cell count of 50-99 cells/μLor with a CD4+ cell count of 100-199 cells/μL(Table 4). In addition to CTX prophylaxis and baseline CD4

Overall, there was a low incidence of PJP among HIV-infected patients who discontinued primary PJP prophylaxis and were well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions Discontinuation of primary PJP prophylaxis appears to be safe in patients on combination ART with a suppressed HIV viral load and a CD4 count >100 cells/mm(3) With the implementation of antiretroviral therapy and PJP prophylaxis the incidence of PJP associated with the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has sharply declined (9), whereas that associated with treatment for malignancy in non-HIV infected hosts has increased (10,11) INTRODUCTION. The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously named Pneumocystis carinii) pneumonia has dramatically declined due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and, to a lesser extent, the use of prophylaxis.Despite this decrease, it remains one of the leading causes of opportunistic infections among persons with HIV and low CD4 cell counts, such as those who are unaware of. The mean CD4 count in the group of patients infected was 281/mm 3, indicating that many patients developed their PCP at CD4 counts well above the guideline for the termination of prophylaxis in patients with HIV. To our knowledge, comparable data do not exist in patients with rheumatic disease who have developed PCP

CD4 cell count were <200/μL in 73.1% of the patients. Conclusion. CD4 cell count <200/μL is a sensitive biomarker to identify non-HIV immunocompromised patients who are at risk for PJP. Measuring CD4 cell counts could help clinicians identify patients who may benefit from TMP-SMX prophylaxis Objective: To determine the safety of discontinuing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, in patients on effective antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell counts that have plateaued at < 200 cells/μl. Methods: We prospectively evaluated a cohort of HIV infected patients at a multidisciplinary HIV clinic with sustained HIV RNA levels < 50 copies/ml and CD4+ T-cell counts that have. e20057. Background: T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are a heterogeneous group of rare, but aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function plays a vital role in the immunologic response to P.jirovecii infection. Our study aims to define the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-uninfected TCL patients.Methods: All patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN diagnosed. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecci, formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii, a ubiquitous fungus. 1,2 Patients at risk for PCP include those with HIV (highest risk), with a history of solid organ or bone marrow transplants, malignancy, and those taking immunosuppressive medications. Before PCP prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy became standard of care, PCP occurred in 70% to 80% of. therapy repletes CD4 T cells and decreases the risk of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Individuals with HIV infections have qualitative, as well as quantitative defects, in CD4 T cell re-sponses to Pneumocystis. As HIV infection progresses, there is a decrease in the ability of CD4 T cells to proliferate when stimulated with Pneumocystis antigens in vitro

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is an opportunistic fungal infection.1, 2 Impaired cell-mediated immunity is the predominant risk factor; a link best established in patients with HIV and CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm 3.3 However, increasing rates of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients without HIV highlight the role of non-HIV. HCPCS G9220 · Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis not prescribed within 3 months of low cd4+ cell count below 500 cells/mm3 or a cd4 percentage below 15% for medical reason (i.e., patient's cd4+ cell count above threshold within 3 months after cd4+ cell count below threshold, indicating that the patient's cd4+ levels are within an acceptable range and the patient does not require pcp. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is an opportunistic disease contracted by individuals with a weakened immune system, and it remains one of the most frequent AIDS-defining diagnoses in resource-rich countries in late presenters [1, 2].People diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with low CD4 lymphocyte counts are at risk of developing PcP and should be prescribed combination.

PCP prophylaxis should not be discontinued in HIV-infected infants aged <1 year. After PCP prophylaxis has been discontinued, the CD4 percentage and CD4 count should be reassessed at least every 3 months and prophylaxis resumed based on the age-specific CD4 count and percentage thresholds described previously HCPCS Code G9219 for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis not prescribed within 3 months of low cd4+ cell count below 200 cells/mm3 for medical reason (i.e., patient's cd4+ cell count above threshold within 3 months after cd4+ cell count below threshold, indicating that the patient's cd4+ levels are within an acceptable range and the patient does not require pcp prophylaxis)

Guidelines for Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among

Prophylaxis may be discontinued in patients with HIV infection whose CD4 count exceeds 200/µL for 3 consecutive months while on HAART. Prophylaxis should be restarted if the CD4 count drops below 200/µL. Prophylaxis should be continued for life in patients who developed PJP while their CD4 level exceeded 200/µL Almost 10 percent of all patients had a decrease in the CD4 cell counts to less than 200 per cubic millimeter, a threshold below which prophylaxis against P. carinii pneumonia is generally. Introduction. Pneumonia with Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly Pneumocystis carinii) remains one of the most common and most threatening AIDS-defining events in patients infected with HIV.Following Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is recommended for HIV-infected adults if the CD4 cell count decreases below 200.

Table 4. Indications for Discontinuing and Restarting ..

Is it safe to discontinue primary Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in patients with virologically suppressed HIV infection and a CD4 cell count Clin Infect Dis</i>. 2010 Sep 1. 51(5):611-9 HCPCS Code G9220 for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis not prescribed within 3 months of low cd4+ cell count below 500 cells/mm3 or a cd4 percentage below 15% for medical reason (i.e., patient's cd4+ cell count above threshold within 3 months after cd4+ cell count below threshold, indicating that the patient's cd4+ levels are within an acceptable range and the patient does not. HCPCS Code for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis prescribed within 3 months of low CD4+ cell count below 500 cells/mm3 or a CD4 percentage below 15% G9223 HCPCS code G9223 for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis prescribed within 3 months of low CD4+ cell count below 500 cells/mm3 or a CD4 percentage below 15% as maintained by CMS falls under Additional Assorted Quality. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii continues to be one of the most common AIDS-defining illnesses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [], despite guidelines published in 1989 recommending appropriate prophylaxis [].Many _studies have reported effective primary and secondary prophylaxis for P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) with three regimens: oral trimethoprim. Opportunistic Infections (OI) in HIV/AIDS patients. • Recognize that the definition of AIDS can depend on the presence of opportunistic infections (OIs). • Identify which surrogate marker dictates the need for OI prophylaxis. • Identify which OI requires primary prophylaxis and when it should be initiated (i.e. CD4 T-cell count)

Table 1. Prophylaxis to Prevent First Episode of ..

Breakthrough pneumocystis pneumonia infection in this group may be explained by irregularities in taking medication for prophylaxis.CD4 count is a strong predictor of pneumocystis pneumonia. The majority of patient (53.0%) diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia had a CD4 <200 (Table 2) • Some experts also recommend monitoring CD4 counts in patients without AIDS, using the threshold of 200 CD4 cells/µL. CDC Grading system used at ECIL 5 Quality of Evidence Strength of Recommendation • Does PjP prophylaxis reduce the incidence of PjP

Consensus guidelines for diagnosis, prophylaxis and

PCP/PJP Prophylaxis Antifungal Prophylaxis Antibacterial Prophylaxis Antiviral Prophylaxis References Table 1. Prevention of PCP/PJP (Pneumocystis carinii/jirovecii) pneumonia Stop after 3 months provided CD4 >200 cells/mm3 300 mg inh once monthly Pentamidine 4 mg/kg IV once monthly (if unable t were receiving cART, and who had CD4 cell counts 1100 cells/mL was low irrespective of prophylaxis use. Dis-continuation of prophylaxis may be safe in patients with CD4 counts of 101-200 cells/mL and suppressed viral load. Before the widespread introduction of combination an-tiretroviral therapy (cART),Pneumocystis jirovecipneu Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is an opportunistic fungal infection. 1,2 Impaired cell-mediated immunity is the predomi-nant risk factor; a link best established in patients with HIV and CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. However, increasing rates of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients withou Based on these data from randomized clinical trials, PCP prophylaxis is currently recommended in the aforementioned populations . 3 Observational data suggest that prophylaxis should also be considered in patients with primary immune deficiencies, CD4 T-cell counts persistently 200/mm 3 or less, severe protein malnutrition, and those receiving.

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A systematic review performed by De Vos et al in 2013 20 recommended initiation of PJP prophylaxis in high-grade glioma once lymphocyte count falls below 500 cells per uL or CD4+ count falls below 200 cells per uL, and continuing it until temozolomide had been stopped and CD4+ count is above 200 cells per uL INTRODUCTION. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially life-threatening infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals.The nomenclature for the species of Pneumocystis that infects humans has been changed from Pneumocystis carinii to Pneumocystis jirovecii; this was done to distinguish it from the species that infects rats.. Patients with HIV and a low CD4 count are at the highest. The major risk factors in this patient population appear to be glucocorticoids, high dose methotrexate, and radiation therapy all of which reduce CD4+ counts. Prophylaxis must be considered carefully because of the significant risk of drug interactions between the methotrexate and the antibiotics used to prevent Pneumocystis infections

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Children who have received PCP prophylaxis from 12 to 24 months of age should be evaluated again at 24 months of age, and prophylaxis should be continued for those children who have had any CD4+ measurement indicating severe immunosuppression (i.e., a CD4+ count of less than 500 cells/uL or a CD4+ percentage of less than 15%) CD4-count and neumocystis prophylaxis in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases / G. Baulier et al. sence of these criteria, cases were con- sidered as colonisation and excluded For secondary prophylaxis, consider providing prophylaxis with the same anti-fungal used for initial treatment. 2If history of VZV reactivation, continue viral prophylaxis until all of the following criteria are met: 1 year post-SCT, immunosuppression discontinuation, and CD4≥200 cells/mm PJP prophylaxis is inadequate, particularly if the CD4 T-cell count is <200 cells/mL or if there is a high inci-dence of PJP in the community. For patients with GVHD receiving ATG-containing GVHD prophylaxis, con-tinuing PJP prophylaxis until 3 months post-discontinuation of IST is important. Cotrimoxazole, dapson Primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) should be initiated when the patient's CD4 count <200cells/microL, CD4% is <14%, and patients have a detectable viral load. Also, patients that suffer from any AIDS-defining illness should be started on primary prophylaxis for other opportunistic pathogens, such as PCP