First indicator of graft occlusion after revascularization

BACKGROUND: Optimal patient selection for lower extremity bypass surgery requires surgeons to predict which patients will have durable functional outcomes following revascularization. Therefore, we examined risk factors that predict amputation or graft occlusion within the first year following lower extremity bypass. METHODS: Using our regional quality-improvement initiative in 11 hospitals in. Myocardial revascularization. Early and late results after reoperation. when performed in patients with new lesions or with previously unbypassed lisions than when done in patients with graft occlusion. Incidence of myocardial infarction after the first and second procedure was similar (3 per cent).. Anticoagulation After Lower Extremity Revascularization The primary outcome of the study was graft occlusion. Secondary first outcomes included vascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with acute internal carotid artery occlusion long after carotid artery revascularization by vein graft. She presented with sudden unconsciousness and left hemiparesis. Her right carotid artery was revascularized with an ipsilateral internal jugular vein graf Graft occlusion during the first postoperative month most commonly results from technical error or poor runoff. After 1 month, the commonest cause of graft occlusion is intimal hyperplasia causing a localized graft stenosis (Figures 10b-18 and 10b-19)

In large population-based studies, anatomic scores examining the completeness of revascularization have demonstrated that residual ischemia after revascularization increases the risk of adverse outcomes after either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. WHAT THE STUDY ADD Saphenous vein grafts remain the most widely used conduits for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. 1 However, despite major advances in surgical techniques, intraoperative adjuncts, and perioperative care, vein grafts continue to have high failure rates. 2,3 In fact, per-graft occlusion rates are estimated to be up to 25% during the first 12 to 18 months after surgery. 4-6 Although. The insufficiency rates for LITA, RITA, rGEA and SVG procedures were 5.1, 10, 14.3 and 7.1%, respectively. The TTFM variables recorded in failing grafts had a significantly lower mean flow (Q mean) and higher pulsatility index (PI) compared with patent grafts.Furthermore, akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the territory of bypassed CTOs was observed at a significantly higher rate in failing. Statins have been shown to reduce the progression of native artery atherosclerosis, slow the process of vein graft disease, and reduce adverse cardiovascular events following surgical revascularization. 1,2,16 For many years, statins were administered after CABG to reduce low-density lipoprotein levels to <100 mg/dL

Acute occlusion of renal bridging stent grafts after fenestrated/branched endovascular aortic repair (F/B-EVAR) is an acknowledged complication with high morbidity that often results in chronic dialysis dependence. The feasibility and effect of timely or late (≥6 hours of ischemia) renal artery revascularization has not been adequately reported Vein graft stenosis implies there is still flow in the graft and that revascularization is technically possible. The phrase vein graft occlusion implies the graft is 100 percent closed (occluded). Ordinarily, this means there is no option for percutaneous revascularization of the graft itself, particularly if the occlusion is chronic

vein graft (SVG) failure (defined as stenosis Keywords: chronic total occlusion n outcomes n percutaneous coronary intervention n prior coronary artery bypass graft >75%) has been reported to be as high as 45% [5]. At 10 years post-CABG, 50-60% of SVGs are either occluded or have hemodynamically sig-nificant stenoses [6]. There is evidence to. After 10 to 12 years of follow-up, there was a tendency for the bypass surgery and medical therapy curves to converge, in regard to both survival as well as nonfatal outcomes. This convergence is due to a number of factors. First, the reduced life expectancy of patients with coronary disease (regardless of treatment) leads to a steady attrition The long-term graft patency rate after direct or combined revascularization for overall MMD was reported to be 88.3-100.0%, and hemorrhagic presentation was indicated to have an inverse effect on graft patency [12,13,18,21,23,26,27,28] Graft pathologies including graft occlusion, stenosis, incorrect anastomosis, incomplete revascularization or poor distal run-off were noted in 33 to 58% of cases [10,11,12,13]. In our institution, we had an incidence for repeat angiography of 2.2% only, graft pathologies were evident in 73% of patients

found that the majority of patients presenting with myocardial ischemia after CABG had either graft failure, or incomplete or even inadequate revascularization demonstrated by repeat angiography. The present prospective study confirms that early (within 7 days) graft occlusion is not uncommon, occurring in 8% of vein grafts and 2% of IMA conduits Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is performed in patients with stable angina and acute coronary syndromes to prolong life or to treat angina refractory to medical or percutaneous revascularization therapies. Angina may return after apparently successful CABG. The cause varies with the time when symptoms are first noted after surgery This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the long-term stent-graft patency after renovisceral revascularization with Viabahn Open Revascularization Technique (VORTEC) using computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). In 34 patients (seven women; mean age 72 ± 8 years) with aortic aneurysm, 63 renovisceral vessels (i.e., 54 renal, nine visceral.

14 More recent surgical series' results of open revascularization are exemplified by Kruger's group of 39 patients treated with open revascularization. 15 This series, which is similar to a large, modern institution series, showed a 5-year graft patency rate of 92% and a perioperative mortality rate of 2.5%. In this study, synthetic bypass was. I. Surgical Revascularization with CABG: What every physician needs to know. At the age of 50 years, the procedure of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has now the most solid evidence supporting its role in revascularization for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in its history. In many respects, this interventional procedure is the most studie

After a successful revascularization, the 6‐ to18‐month re‐thrombosis and graft survival rates in these six studies were 22% (range: 0-50%) and 65% (range: 33-100%) respectively. Recently, HAT has been reported to be successfully managed with total endovascular management including transcatheter IAT, PTA, and stenting The use of an RA graft for revascularization procedures was introduced by Carpentier et al. 4 for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Potential advantages of RA as a graft conduit include ease of harvesting; low propensity for wound infection; a larger diameter than other arterial grafts; and a thick, muscular wall that facilitates the construction of an anastomosis

Overall 1- and 5-year graft occlusion rates were 4.3% (44 of 1031 distal anastomoses) and 5.5% (45 out of 820), respectively. The occlusion rates of grafts bypassed to vessels with functionally significant and insignificant stenosis were 2.7% (21 out of 769) and 8.8% (23 out of 262) at 1 year and were 4.0% (25 out of 618) and 9.9% (20 out of 202) at 5 years, respectively In the RAPS trial, the risk of adverse events was significantly higher in patients with graft stenosis. 38 An individual patient-level meta-analysis of six angiographic trials comparing RA with SVG found a reduction in graft occlusion and in the composite of death, MI, or repeat revascularization at 5 years in the RA arm. 42 An association. Eligible participants were randomized between 4 and 14 days after CABG surgery in a 1:1:1 ratio. 9 The primary outcome of COMPASS CABG was the proportion of coronary bypass grafts that had failed with complete occlusion of the graft (graft-level analysis). The secondary outcome was the proportion of patients with a failed graft (patient-level. In the POPular CABG study we investigate if the addition of ticagrelor, a drug that inhibits blood platelets from clotting, to treatment with aspirin will reduce the rate of saphenous vein graft occlusion as assessed with coronary computed tomography angiography at 1 year after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery Type 1 Excludes. encounter for adjustment and management of renal dialysis catheter ( Z49.01) ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code T81.7. Vascular complications following a procedure, not elsewhere classified. Vascular complications following a procedure, NEC; embolism complicating abortion or ectopic or molar pregnancy (O00-O07, O08.2); embolism.

Myocardial revascularization

39 patients treated with open revascularization.15 This series, which is similar to a large, modern institution series, showed a 5-year graft patency rate of 92% and a perioperative mortality rate of 2.5%. In this study, syn-thetic bypass was used approximately half the time, and multivessel grafting was used whenever feasible In the early 1960s the first reports on successful aortocoronary bypass operations for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) were published. 1 Ever since, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become one of the most frequently performed operations worldwide and has been continuously refined and developed. 2 Off-pump surgery and minimally invasive procedures have evolved to.

The composite of death, MI, or revascularization with vein graft failure occurred in 101 (6.7%) of patients assigned to edifoligide and 121 (8.1%) of patients assigned to placebo (P = .16). From the first few weeks after CABG surgery, the risk of a major adverse cardiac events event was approximately constant through 1 year . With all. The Role of Clopidogrel and Acetylsalicylic Acid in the Prevention of Early-Phase Graft Occlusion Due to Reactive Thrombocytosis after Coronary Artery Bypass Operation. Taha Mustafa. Related Papers. Effects of Aspirin Responsiveness and Platelet Reactivity on Early Vein Graft Thrombosis After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

Anticoagulation After Lower Extremity Revascularizatio

Risk factors for early graft occlusion are also best identified during the procedure, leading to the decision to avoid surgical revascularization. Interestingly, these patients are more frequently male, raising the question whether direct identification of incomplete revascularization might be facilitated in male patients, possibly due to. The most common indicator for a redo CABG is vein-graft failure from occlusion of a SVG [ 14]. Patients who qualify for a redo CABG should have at least one graftable coronary artery with an ischaemic territory. If the patient is symptomatic, this is a strong indication for redo CABG When both stress and rest perfusion were normal, graft patency was 82% (51 of 62 grafts). Graft patency was also high (81%, 13 of 16) in areas where stress perfusion abnormalities resolved or become less apparent at rest. However, when stress perfusion defects remained unchanged at rest, the graft was likely to be occluded (73%, 11 of 15) Early graft failure was observed in 1 patient in group S. In this patient, intraoperative mean graft flow was 20 mL/minute, and the pulsatility index was 2.0. No systolic reverse flow was observed. The reason for the graft occlusion in this patient was unknown, and repeat off-pump coronary artery bypass was performed 10 months after the operation Revascularization procedures, including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), are performed in many patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the effectiveness of these procedures, different follow-up strategies need to be considered for the management of patients after revascularization. Stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission.

overall graft occlusion in both groups, the proportion of graft occlusion was lower in the FFR-guided group with 9% and 17%, respectively (P = 0.024). Moreover, FFR guidance was the only predicting factor of graft patency in arterial grafts. As for the long-term clinical outcome, the rate of MACE (log rank: 0.209; P = 0.238), death (log rank: 0. Vein graft disease consists of three different but related pathological processes: thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis, where early thrombosis is a major cause of vein graft friction during the first month after CABG, while later on intimal hyperplasia is the leading cause of graft disease [25, 26]

The regional myocardial perfusion distributions of coronary artery bypass grafts were studied in 61 patients who received 162 grafts. Selective intragraft instillations of radioactive-labeled macroaggregated albumin particles were used to study perfusion. The extent of individual graft perfusion was assessed in 100 patent grafts. Regional myocardial blood flow distribution was similar to the. First the minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) emerged in the mid-90s through an anterior mini-thoracotomy. A first set of 155 patients with isolated lesions of the LAD in Italy was reported by Antonio Calafiore ( 50 ), and the technique was standardized and later meticulously described by Valavanur Subramanian ( 51 ) Objective To investigate the impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery on the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTO). Design Observational retrospective study. Setting Three tertiary hospitals in the USA. Participants 1363 consecutive patients who underwent CTO PCI between 2006 and 2011

Acute Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Long after Carotid

Graft Occlusion - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Video: Residual Ischemia After Revascularization in Multivessel

Relationship Between Vein Graft Failure and Subsequent

occlusion of the right coronary artery by ipsilateral injection via an isolated conus artery. Heart Vessels 27 (2012): 327-330. 11. Dai J, Katoh O, Zhou H, Kyo E. First reported revascularization of complex occlusion of the right coronary artery using the IVUS-guided reverse CART technique via a gastroepiploic artery graft. Heart Vessels 3 Graft failure or occlusion occurred in 4-30% cases on 3-5 years in another series. In our series one graft limb occluded, which was managed by embolectomy, had good distal flow and patient made a good recovery.Our series demonstrated superior inflow, excellent quality of life, and more reliable patency with thoraco-bifemoral bypass Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced cabbage) surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.A normal coronary artery transports blood to the heart muscle itself, not through the main circulatory system CAD Total Coronary Occlusion What is coronary artery disease? Coronary artery disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary (heart) arteries, as shown in the top illustration. After an interventional procedure, the coronary artery is opened, increasing blood flow to the heart

nd 2014 (n = 678) with portal reperfusion first were stratified according to RT (<44 minutes vs ≥44 minutes) and graft quality (standard liver graft [SLG], Donor Risk Index < 2.3 vs marginal liver graft [MLG], Donor Risk Index ≥ 2.3). Results Revascularization time of 44 minutes or longer resulted in significantly greater incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) (29% vs 47%, P < 0. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve quality of life and reduce cardiac-related mortality. CAD is the leading cause of mortality in the United States [] and the developed world, [] and 16.5 million US adults (age ≥20 years) are affected by this disease annually. [] It alone accounts for 530,989 deaths each year in the. onset to revascularization, inclusion of patients with total occlusion of the IRA versus subto-tal occlusion, and the presence or absence of inducible ischemia. The 'not-so-late late-comers' A substantial number of patients present between 12 and 48 h after symptom onset. The Beyond 12 h Reperfusion Alternativ Given that the mortality curves for successful and failed CTO-PCI diverge over time, procedural complications (which would manifest as a parting of the curves during the first week after the.

Predictors of early graft failure after coronary artery

Management of patients treated with Ticagrelor is challenging, as stopping Ticagrelor prior to coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) may increase the risk of acute stent thrombosis. The aim of the study was to compare bleeding complications in patients treated with ticagrelor combined with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) versus ASA alone until 1 day before surgery In the first 6 to 8 hours after surgery, 18 patients received intravascular volume expansion with 5% albumin when the clinical perfusion state was inadequate and accompanied by pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) less than 15 mmHg and a hemoglobin level greater than 8 g/dL

Secondary Prevention After CABG Surgery - American College

  1. Background . Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) are both feasible, less invasive techniques for coronary revascularization. Although both techniques utilize the left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery graft, HCR uses drug-eluting stents instead of saphenous vein bypass. It remains unclear whether HCR is equal to.
  2. Multi-centre, randomised clinical trial with anticipated 17 European centres: in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and UK. Patients with a dysfunctional bypass graft with a clinical indication for revascularization will be randomized to either PCI of the native vessel or PCI of the dysfunctional venous bypass graft. 584 patients with a a clinical indication for percutaneous coronary.
  3. A new section titled Coronary Therapeutic Services and Procedures was added to the Medicine section of the 2013 CPT manual. This new section introduces new codes 92920-92944 for coronary angioplasty, coronary atherectomy and placement of intracoronary stents in the coronary arteries and coronary artery bypass grafts. These new codes replace codes 92980-92984 & 92995-92996. The [
  4. A graft with a stenosis of > 70% of its diameter was defined as stenosis. A graft with stenosis or occlusion was classified as a diseased graft in this study. The classification of ischemic territory was based on the results of coronary angiography (CAG) after re-hospitalization and also referred to the results prior to CABG
  5. With the ageing of China's population, the incidence and mortality of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) is increasing year by year, which brings a heavy burden to the family and society [1]. We aimed to analyse the strategy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the right coronary artery and to compare the haemodynamic characteristics of the sequential grafts with those of.
  6. the OR after the procedure. Local anesthesia (e.g., Marcaine) is injected into the sternal wound to decrease early postoperative pain. Surgical Approach Because the OPCAB teclmique produces periods of myocardial ischemia from coronary artery occlusion during anastomotic grafting, the order of grafting i
  7. -deficiency disease; characterized by loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action. Tay-Sachs disease. A fatal genetic disorder in which lipids accumulate in the tissues and brain due to an enzyme deficiency

Revascularization of occluded renal artery stent grafts

Finally, in the first days after randomization there was a cross-over rate of approximately 20% from the conservative to the PCI treatment, which may also have affected the final results. 14. 17 This suggests that patients who may receive greater benefit from CTO revascularization are those with the highest degree of ischemia • Inducible VT/VF at EPS ≥4 days after revascularization • LVEF 36-49% A (7) 3. • VF or polymorphic VT during acute (<48 hours) #$ • NSVT 4 days post #$ • Inducible VT/VF at EPS ≥4 days after revascularization • LVEF ≤35% A (8) Obstructive CAD With Coronary Anatomy Not Amenable to Revascularization 6

3. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): PCI is still the first choice for myocardial ischemia after CABG. In China, most revascularization procedures are performed by PCI. With respect to revascularization strategies, both the feasibility of PCI and the blood flow competition between reconstructed vessels and the SVG should be taken into. Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery is a very rare finding in coronary angiography because of its highly lethal nature. Right coronary artery dominance and extensive collateral circulation are the principal determinant factors of survival after total occlusion of the left main coronary artery. The impact on the left ventricle is often significant with a profound alteration of its. ICA evidenced an increased hemodynamic flow redistribution via the graft, which was the indicator to permit proximal endovascular ICA-occlusion with two vessel plug devices (Figures 3 A - C). Figure 3A Intraoperative angiogram confirming bypass patency after ICA-occlusion incomplete revascularization was associated with significantly increased risk of postoperative MI primarily if surgery was performed within six weeks after PCI (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-2.38). The number of vessels with incomplete revascularization was also associated with an increase

For assessment of treatment results after LE arterial revascularization, various objective and subjective endpoints have been used, including patency of the treated artery or bypass graft, healing rates of the ischemic wound, limb salvage, walking ability, ankle brachial index, absence of target limb revascularization, reintervention rate, cost. • Arterial revascularization is most common surgical procedure to ↑ arterial bld flow in affected limb • one of first indicators of reocclusion • Pain should not be like b/4 procedure • Most common Tx for acute graft occlusion • Done bedsid The likelihood of amputation or graft occlusion at one year varied from less than 0.5% in patients with no risk factors to nearly 30% in patients with three or more risk factors (Figure 3). Table 2. Multivariate predictors of amputation or graft occlusion 1 year following lower extremity bypass Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are commonly used during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) for severe coronary artery disease. However, SVGs are prone to both degeneration and occlusion, leading to poor long-term patency compared with arterial grafts. Previous reports suggest rates of SVG failure in the first 12-18 months may be as high as 25 %.1-4 SVG neointimal hyperplasia and.

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Prevention and

The rate of VGF, defined as complete occlusion of the graft, is as high as 40−50% at 10 years after CABG surgery, thereby affecting the long-term outcomes of surgical revascularization (such as. Endovascular revascularization has become a first-line treatment for aortoiliac occlusive disease. However, aortic bypass grafting remains one of the best techniques for exposing and repairing aortic or iliac vessel disease. Although unilateral reconstruction of the iliac vessels used to be common, aortobifemoral bypass is currently preferred Chapter 3 Activation of hemostasis after coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiopulmonary bypass Chapter 7 C-reactive protein is a risk indicator for atrial fibrillation after myocardial revascularization Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 May;79(5 activation of the coagulation system. When this surface is damaged, occlusion of the.

ACC/AHA Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Any PCI, chronic total occlusion 92943 Percutaneous transluminal revascularization of chronic total occlusion, coronary artery, coronary artery branch, or coronary artery bypass graft, a combination of intracoronary stent, atherectomy and angioplasty; single vessel 12.31 4.28 2.74 19.33 C9607-Percdrug-elutingcor revasc CTO; single vessel +9294 The prognosis for patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction is poor, despite advances in different therapies. Noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability may guide patient management. Multiple imaging techniques have been developed to assess viable and nonviable myocardium by evaluating perfusion, cell membrane integrity, mitochondria, glucose metabolism, scar tissue, and. popliteal access obtained. SFA occlusion is traversed using a Cross-It XT guidewire and a Safe-Cross catheter. The wire is snared into the CFA sheath with angioplasty performed (5 mm balloon with hemodynamically significant residual stenosis) followed by placement of a 5 mm stent graft. Embolization is seen into the peroneal on completion.

Delayed Anastomotic Occlusion after Direct

KEY POINTS 1. The total annual cost of cardiovascular disease in the U.S. is close to 400 billion representing 17% of the total health care costs due to major illness. 2. Risk factors for myocardial revascularization surgery include history of CHF, EF <30%, advanced age, obesity, emergency surgery, concomitant valve surgery, prior cardiac surgery, DM Revascularization of occluded renal bridging stent grafts after F/B-EVAR is a safe and feasible technique and can lead to significant improvement of renal function, even after long ischemia times (>24 hours) of the renal parenchyma or bilateral occlusion, as long as residual perfusion of the renal parenchyma has been preserved In particular, the choice of revascularization strategy and the graft selection are key factors for the success of procedures in these patients. While large studies have reported a survival benefit for bilateral thoracic artery (BITA) grafting compared with left internal thoracic artery (LITA) CABG [ 7 , 8 ] there is conflicting data published. Introduction. Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the distal portion of the internal carotid arteries with the development of collateral vessels (1,2).Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the current reference standard for assessing the extent of moyamoya disease, the presence of collateral vessels, and postoperative anastomosis patency ()

Impact of coronary angiography early after CABG for

INTRODUCTION. Estimated mid- to long-term graft dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranges from 5% for internal thoracic artery grafts to 25% for saphenous vein grafts [].It has been recognized as one of the most significant risk factors for postoperative myocardial infarction and hemodynamic instability C9606 Percutaneous transluminal revascularization of acute total/subtotal occlusion during acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery or coronary artery bypass graft, any combination of drug-eluting intracoronary stent, atherectomy and angioplasty, including aspiration thrombectomy when performed, single vessel 92973, G0290, 92995, 9298 artery bypass reoperation. During the first year after bypass surgery, up to 15% of saphenous vein grafts occlude, between 1 and 6 years, the graft attrition rate is 1% to 2% per year, and between 6 and 10 years, it is 4% per year. By 10 years after surgery only 60% of vein grafts are patent (Figure1.1) and only 50% of patent vein grafts ar

If revascularization is required, this may be accomplished by endovascular treatment (balloon angioplasty, stenting, stent grafting, or atherectomy) or surgical procedures such as endarterectomy or bypass using prosthetic grafts for large arteries (aorta, iliac, and above-the-knee femoral), or vein (preferred for below-the-knee bypasses) Coronary artery bypass grafting (or CABG) is a cardiac revascularization technique used to treat patients with significant, symptomatic stenosis of the coronary artery (or its branches). The stenosed segment is bypassed using an arterial (e.g., internal thoracic artery ) or venous (e.g., great saphenous vein ) autograft , re-establishing blood. Clinical impact of sex on carotid revascularization.. 71. 2020; Similar 5-year outcomes between female and male patients undergoing elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the Ovation stent graft.. 72. 2019; The case for expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm screening.. 71. 201 Objective Myocardial ischaemia is a leading cause of acute heart failure (AHF). However, optimal revascularisation strategies in AHF are unclear. We aimed to compare two revascularisation strategies, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in patients with AHF. Methods Among 5625 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively in the Korean Acute Heart.